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This title offers the latest methods for wastewater treatment using fixed-film processes. This Water Environment Federation resource provides complete coverage of pure fixed-film and hybrid treatment systems, along with details on their design, performance, and operational issues. Biofilm Reactors discusses factors that affect the design of the various processes, appropriate design criteria and procedures, modeling techniques, equipment requirements, and construction methods. Operational issues associated with each type of process are presented, including potential problems and corrective actions. Real-world case studies illustrate the application of the technologies presented in this authoritative volume. Biofilm Reactors covers: Biology of fixed-film processes; trickling filter and combined trickling filter suspended-growth process design and operation; rotating biological contactors; moving-bed biofilm reactors; hybrid processes; biological filters; new and emerging fixed-film technologies; clarification; effluent filtration; and, development and application of models for integrated fixed-film activated sludge, moving-bed reactors, biological aerated filters, and trickling filters.